The Freemasons are the oldest (and most famous) fraternal organization in the world. The origin of their name comes from Biblical times, when stonemason members of the organization (in those days probably an early trade guild) reputedly built castles and temples throughout Europe and, significantly, King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem. This WWII era ring belonged to a member of the Lodge of Perfection within the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, an American branch of the organization. The symbol rendered in black enamel is the Hebrew letter "Yod", the first letter of the name of the Supreme Being aka Yahweh aka God. It also denotes the 14th degree within the Scottish Rite. The inside of the band is engraved: "Whom virtue unites, death cannot separate".
RETRO (1935 - 1945)
World War II marked the shift from Art Deco to retro, as yet another war (and the subsequent materials rations) dictated what was available on the jewelry market. Platinum was reserved for military use, so jewelers began relying heavily on gold and experimenting with colored alloys and different finishes. Retro jewelry designs are marked by asymmetry, motifs borrowed from industrial design, and exaggerated scale.
Thanks to a hugely successful advertising campaign begun in the 1940s and funded by De Beers, the phrase “a diamond is forever” was coined and diamond rings were touted as the ONLY acceptable type of engagement ring. Carefully worded ads instructed men on how to choose a stone, and what to spend (“two months salary!”). The Gemological Institute of America developed the so-called “4Cs” of diamond grading, which was a scientific system for measuring the color, clarity, cut and carat weight of every single diamond.
The costume jewelry industry, having only been established a few decades before, began to flourish. Centered in Providence, Rhode Island, and surrounding New England towns, companies like Trifari, Monet, Hobe, and Vendome prospered as consumers gobbled up inexpensive machine-made jewels.