A brief history of the French bulldog: these petite, short-haired, buff doggos are descended from an Ancient Greek breed that was disseminated throughout the wider world by Phoenician traders. After being introduced in Britain they were bred into working dogs: mastiffs and bulldogs. The bulldog takes its name from the job it was bred to perform, they were employed in the rather ghastly sport of bull-baiting. However, bull-baiting was banned in Great Britain at the end of the Georgian period and the bulldog found itself out of a job. At this point they were bred with terriers to reduce their size and voila! the miniature bulldog was born. This toy breed became extremely popular in France. British breeders exported the vast majority of their dogs to France, frequently sending over the dogs with "inferior" traits such as very small size and ears that stick up - enter the Frenchie!! This highly unusual Victorian stick pin features a carved wood French bulldog head with a little brass ball.
VICTORIAN (1837 - 1901)
The Western world was thoroughly transformed during Queen Victoria’s epically long reign. New technology, urbanization, and industrialization created a middle class flush with disposable income, and for the first time, jewelry was mass-produced to sell to everyone.
The Victorians were avid consumers and novelty-seekers, especially when it came to fashion, and numerous fads came and went throughout the 19th century. In jewelry, whatever fashion choices Queen V. made reverberated throughout the kingdom. The Romantic period reflected the queen’s legendary love for her husband, Albert. Jewelry from this period featured joyful designs like flowers, hearts, and birds, all which often had symbolic meaning. The queen’s betrothal ring was made in the shape of a snake, which stood for love, fidelity, and eternity. The exuberant tone shifted after Prince Albert passed away in 1861, marking the beginning of the Grand Period. Black jewelry became de rigeur as the Queen and her subjects entered “mourning,” which at the time represented not just an emotional state, as we conceive of it today, but a specific manner of conduct and dress. She wore the color black for the remainder of her life, and we see lots of black onyx, enamel, jet, and gutta percha in the jewelry from this time. Finally, during the late Victorian period, which transitioned along with a rapidly changing world into the “Aesthetic Movemement”, there was a return to organic and whimsical motifs: serpents, crescent moons, animals, and Japonaisserie designed for the more liberated “Gibson Girl”.
During the second half of the 19th century, America entered the global jewelry market, with Tiffany and Co. leading the way. Lapidaries continued to perfect their techniques, and the old European cut emerged toward the end of the Victorian period. The discovery of rich diamond mines in South Africa made the colorless stones more accessible than ever before.